REPLY1 There are a variety of risk factors for osteoporosis. The first risk factor is age. Women are more likely to develop the condition than men. In addition, the older an individual gets, the higher his or her chances are of developing the condition. The race is another risk factor that contributes to higher rates of the condition amongst Caucasian and Asian patients. Individuals who have smaller body frames tend to bear a higher risk of developing the condition. When a person has a family history of osteoporosis, he or she faces a significant risk of developing it. Pouresmaeili et al. (2018) list smoking and alcohol consumption as modifiable risk factors. The researchers also include hypogonadism, dementia, and diabetes in a secondary list of risk factors. Wozniak et al. (2019) found that nurse case-managed osteoporosis was received positively by patients. Therefore, the nurse can play a vital role in the management of the condition. Key intervention nurses can use to help patients manage osteoporosis is educating them on their condition and treatment regimen. This approach helps the patient understand what he or she is dealing with and how his or her actions can complement treatment. In addition, the nurse can help the patient relieve pain associated with the condition. Examples of tactics the nurse can use are recommending a better mattress as well as providing soothing massages such as back rubs. Pain management enables the patient to get back to optimal health and improves his or her ability to engage in ADLs. Nurses can also offer counsel to patients who find it difficult to come to terms with the diagnosis. Enabling patients to view their condition in a positive light sets them on the path to achieving optimal health. References Pouresmaeili, F., Kamalidehghan, B., Kamarehei, M., & Goh, Y. M. (2018). A comprehensive overview of osteoporosis and its risk factors. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 14, 2029. Doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S138000 Wozniak, L. A., Rowe, B. H., Ingstrup, M., Johnson, J. A., McAlister, F. A., Bellerose, D., & Majumdar, S. R. (2020). Patients experiences of nurse case-managed osteoporosis care: a qualitative study. Journal of Patient Experience, 7(2), 251-257. DOI: 10.1177/2374373519827340 REPLY2 The risk factors for osteoporosis are; family history, Caucasian, increased age, female, small figure, fair or pale skin, thin build, early menopause, late menarche, late menarche, null parity, obesity, below normal weight, acidosis, low vitamin D or calcium intake, high caffeine intake, sedentary lifestyle, smoker, excessive alcohol consumption, liver or kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis. (GCU, 2018). The nurse can help the patient manage their health condition and restore their health by offering education on pain management and prevention and health promotion. Pain management can be RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation), application of heat and cold can relieve some pain and reduce swelling, acupressure, acupuncture, exercise, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units, and massage are also beneficial. Getting intra-articular injections of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or autologous conditioned serum, can delay joint replacements for some osteoarthritis patients. Muscle relaxers, NSAIDS, and opioid and non-opioid analgesics can be beneficial. (GCU, 2018). It is also important to provide education on a well-balanced diet including a diet rich in omega 3 fatty acids, exercise regimens and how this can help promote mobility and decrease pain, medication regimens and assistance with insurance coverage if needed. (GCU,2018). Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Pathophysiology: Clinical applications for client health. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/
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