Four Types Of Perceptual Distortions

Discusses four types of perceptual distortions: stereotyping, halo effects, selective perception, and projection. Define each of these types of perceptual distortions and provide a full example of each perceptual distortion.

For each discussion, you are required to write an initial post (300 words) and one secondary post (200 words).  The discussion forums will be worth 40 points apiece—25 points for the initial post and 15 points for the secondary post.  For your initial and secondary posts, you must have two academic peer-reviewed articles for references.  You must get them from the library.  There are directions at the top of our Moodle page showing how to utilize the library

Sample Answer

Four Types of Perceptual Distortions

When the stated view is in contrast with the typical reaction, then perceptual distortion starts to happen. Mental trips and optical dreams are different theoretically from perceptual styles exhibited as contrast components of every individual—some mistakes in the explanation attribute to an individual’s perception that determine recognition and conception (Norton, 2019). The four types of perceptual distortion discussed in this essay include; stereotyping, halo effects, selective perception, and projection.

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Stereotyping entails a failure to consider general data about social gathering; age, race, sex, nationalities, physical capacity, and political association. Stable identity attributes data is an essential part of this perception. The stereotyping perceptions encode the relationship between practices, circumstances, and social classification, which helps anticipate conduct. For example, it is a perception that men are supposed to be the breadwinners of their families. However, women are to be involved with works in their houses. Another stereotypical perception is that women are bad drivers compared to men.

Moreover, halo effect perception is where people accept that a certain person can work on other different tasks just because they are successful in doing another task. If an individual completed a specific task, they are likely to perform better in the new task. Edward Thorndike postulated Halo effect perception, who utilized its examination in 1920 to assess how employers appraised their staff. The Halo effect is experienced today, especially in how instructors treat their students and the perception they receive from students. For example, warm and well-disposed teachers have a high appraisal by students to be more engaging and agreeable.

Further, selective perception is when individuals see what they believe is correct and do not consider the contradicting perspectives. It is like an illusion because the person with this kind of perception sees things the way they feel and not what the reality is. For example, it happens when someone tells a third person how good they are and mentions one of their flaws. All good spoken about in the third person has no remembrance anymore, and all concentration is on the negative, and an opinion about the third person starts to form. Additionally, selective perception is an encounter in instances where individuals who do rigorous activities daily affect their habits, such as smoking and drinking, and would cause no effect on their health. These individuals excising each day believe they are suited to life, and they fall into practices that ruin their health.

Lastly, projection is a perception mechanism where negative emotions are uprooting onto someone else, where they at that moment manifest as a threat from the global world. People with this perception assign their traits and feelings to other people. It is among individuals who have an impact that their friends or family dislike them. Projection perception is on an individual’s extraordinary habits of their communication. Even if it may not be accurate, some judgment may come from fears about different people. An example of projection is when an individual brought down by their furious emotions blames others for the unfriendly contemplations (Counted, 2021).




Counted, V. (2021). The roots of radicalization: Disrupted attachment systems and displacement. Rowman & Littlefield.

Norton, L. B. (2019). Books of Life: Post-DNA Life Science in 1960s American Fiction (Doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill).

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