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Family Process And Analysis
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Select one (1) family based on personal/professional acquaintance, to complete a comprehensive, written assessment/analysis using the criteria listed below (based on class notes and readings). DO NOT use your family of orientation (family of origin) or your nuclear (conjugal) family. (For definitions, see the Glossary of Terms in Friedman et al, Family Nursing textbook.
• Examine the impact of functional patterns and role structure on the family.
• Examine family relationships and communication patterns.
• Identify influences on family health promotion.
Notes for assignments
Family Nursing: Research, Theory, and Practice (5th ed.) Chapters 6 & 7
Citation: Friedman, M. M., Bowden, V. R., & Jones, E. G. (2003). Family nursing: Research, theory, and practice (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
1.1. Definition of the Family
A family is a dynamic system that consists of some elements (at least two individuals) who have a specific relationship (these relationships distinguish the family system from other systems) and specific production in a specific context based on social norm.
Family as a system has three dimensions, according to the Family Process and Content Model (FPC Model):
The Family Process, Family Content, and the Social Context of the Family
Family Processes (1.2)
The Family Process refers to the functions that organize the family in the FPC Model.
The ability of a family to adjust to new requirements and adapt to new surroundings is one of these organizational functions.
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Siamak Samani / Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 30 (2011) 2285–2292 Siamak Samani / Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 30 (2011) 2285–2292
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Family Process Characteristics in the FPC Model Level of Complexity
Dependence on the context
A number of organizational functions that make up the construct of family process include decision making, coping, problem solving, flexibility, child rearing, parenting, tolerance, planning, leadership, assertiveness, perspective taking, and self-presentation.
To put it another way, the family process encompasses all organizational processes used by family members to manage emotional, cognitive, and social events throughout their lives.
These functions, according to research, are critical processes that help individuals and families manage more effectively with new crises (Walsh, 1996).
A big group of scholars has spent the last decade attempting to find these roles and advancing our understanding of them (Beavers and Hampson, 1993, and Olson, 1993).
The family process has three characteristics: complexity, trainability, and context dependency.
The “complexity” of the process is initially determined by the amount of skills that must be applied in order to use it.
Problem solving in a critical situation, for example, is more difficult than tolerating one’s wife’s new needs because it requires more skills, such as focusing on the task, selecting relevant items, predicting different outcomes, diagnosing the sequence of factors, evaluating different methods to solve the problem, selecting the best method to solve the problem, and so on.
The amount of complexity of a process is also determined by the importance of the content on which the process is carried out.
For example, choosing a spouse is more difficult than picking a shirt, and deciding whether or not to have a child is more difficult than deciding whether or not to buy a new automobile.
Another aspect that impacts the level of complexity of a process is the context.
Coping with a negative affection environment or a stressful circumstance, for example, is far more difficult than coping with a regular one.
Communication with a stranger is also more difficult than communicating with a friend.
As a result, there are three aspects that influence the complexity of a family process:
The amount of talents required in a process, the value of the content, and the context condition are all factors to consider.
The family processes are “trainable,” according to the FPC Model.
Problem solving (Dubow, Huesmann, & Eron, 1998; Dupper, & Krishef, 1993; Gange,1980; Tisdell, & Lawrence,1988), communication skills (Weene, 2003; Cegala,2000; Leadbeater, Hellner, Allen, & Abner,1989), assertiveness (Ray, 1981; Lorr, & More, 1980; Lawrence, 1970; Lawrence,1970; Lawrence,1970; Lawrence,19
Training also improves the quality of family processes, according to study (Sternberg, & Bry, 1994; Christoff, Scott, Kelley, Schlundt, Baer, & Kelly, 1985).
Finally, these processes’ high quality results in improved family adjustment and adaption.
This quality allows the model to move beyond the present and into the future by not only healing families but also preparing them to meet future crises.
In fact, this strategy is built on psychoeducational principles and employs technical coping and adaption guidelines.
Context dependency is the third characteristic of the family process.
It means that there may be some variances in the frequency with which family processes are used as well as the value of family processes in different situations.
In individualistic circumstances, for example, the process of self-presentation and self-monitoring is more complex.
Siamak Samani / Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 30 (2011) 2285–2292 2287 Siamak Samani / Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 30 (2011) 2285–2292 2287
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Dependency on the context of the family
In comparison to collectivist contexts, the level of changeability is usable (Triandis,1995).
The findings also show that in collectivist environments, communication skills are relational oriented, but in individualistic contexts, they are task directed ( Pekerti & Thomas, 2003; Burgoon & Hale, 1987).
In terms of family process, there are two layers of family differences related to “context dependency”:
There are two types of family differences: inter-context family differences and intra-context family differences.
The term “inter-context family difference” refers to family differences that have been discovered through cross-cultural research.
Family disparities between Iranian and Canadian families, for example, are referred to as inter-contextual differences.
The term “intra-context family difference” refers to the distinctions between families inside a specific environment.
Intra-context disparities, for example, are seen as differences across Iranian families.
1.3. Content for Families
The quality of a family’s health (physical and mental), work, income, presence and absence of members, educational level, site of residence, age, sex, race, nationality, number of family members, relatives, investment, and so on is referred to as “family content.”
Demographic variables are the most important of these elements.
Some of the contents of a family are fixed or stable, while others are variable or unstable.
Sex and race, for example, are fixed characteristics, but wealth, educational level, and health (mental and physical) are variable or changeable.
Context dependency and level of changeability are two features of family content.
The level of importance of family content in different societies or situations is referred to as context dependency.
For example, “educational attainment” is an essential consideration for most Iranian households when selecting a mate.
To put it another way, the significance of family stuff varies depending on the context.
These variances may also be found among various families in a given situation.
The level of changeability is the second feature of family content.
The constant family contents are sex and race, but the degree of education, job, income, presence and absence of family members, and site of living change throughout time.
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