Comment 1 Independent variables is a variable that is manipulated or varied by the researcher, and the dependent variable is the measurement of the response to the independent variable (Rutgers University Library, 2018). The independent variables of my project would be the age, sex, training, and degree of the nurses and other health care staff. The dependent variables would be formulating questions to further research-based knowledge, use the databases to find out relevant knowledge, and participate in the implementation of research-based knowledge in practice Boström, Rudman, Ehrenberg, Gustavsson, & Wallin, 2013). I need to collect both the independent and dependent variables because I need to see the relationship between the nurses and health care staff, and their knowledge and abilities to carry out the EBP project. In order to determine the effectiveness of the EBP project, a study must be done. The independent variables would be manipulated by giving them the knowledge and resources to provide better quality care. Better quality care would improve and decrease incidences of pressure ulcers. The dependent variable would determine if the project was successful or not. Comment 2 My EBP project is focusing on staff retention of newly hired nurses on the nights shift. The dependent variable that I will be measuring is the reduction of nurse turnover after use of mentor/mentee program in first three months of employment. The independent variable is the three-month time frame and the use of nurses in research. An article from Sarikas, (2018) describes the independent and dependent variable relationship like this. The independent variable is what I want to change (i.e. use of mentor/mentee program). The dependent variable is what changes (i.e. rate of new nurse turnover). Collection of the dependent variables will show the success or lack of success in implementing the use of a mentorship program that will reduce the rate of newly hired nurse turnover. This information will show an improvement in nurse confidence and job satisfaction which will affect patient satisfaction. If the nurses are happy the patients will benefit through more confident and patient centered care. The independent variable would be the implementation of the mentorship program that will promote nurse satisfaction over a three-month period. Comment 3 DQ 2 Statistical significance and clinical significance are vital is determining how effective different studies are. Studies have shown that clinical significance is difficult to define and has different meanings. According to Polit (2017), one definition is the degree of improvement experiences by patients (e.g., the amount of pain reduction among patients with cancer) (p. 18). Another definition is the absence of change (e.g., the absence of deterioration in spirometry test values among patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or there is change, the amount of change that would be clinically significant might depend on what the baseline value is (p. 18). Statistical significance is defined as the way to indicate that the result of a statistical analysis probably are not attributable to chance or serendipity, at a specified level of probability (Polit, 2017, p. 18). A major difference between clinical significance and statistical significance, statistical significance is affected by sample size; whereas, clinical significance relies on patient-reported outcomes, such as quality of life and pain to determine the effectiveness of interventions. I can use clinical significance to support positive outcomes in my project by ensuring that staff and management are aware of the guidelines of the project. I would also try to motivate the staff to implement the change in patient care by informing them how engaging in the interventions would improve patient outcomes. It would also improve staff outcomes because the patients would have less instances of pressure ulcer development, and the nurses and other staff can focus on other parts of patient care. Other types of care would include medication administration and ADLs. The company would also save money on the supplies needed to heal and treat pressure wounds. The company could use the money they save on other supplies, improve the facility, or give back to the employees. Comment 4 Clinical significance is defined as a subjective explanation of a research result as practical or useful for the patient and likely to affect provider behavior and statistical significance deals with the probability that a research result is accurate according to Thompson (2017). Clinical significance (CS) can also be know as clinical importance or practical importance. CS relates to the research results effect on patient outcomes relating to pain, treatment effects, or comfort. CS is a subjective decision that tells us how effective the research may be to patients, Statistical significance (SS) tells us the chance that research is a chance finding, according to Thompson (2017). SS is based on the sample size and depending on how large the sample is, most can be statistically significant. Clinical significance can be used to support outcomes in my EBP by showing the value in retaining staff and investing in supporting and maintaining newly hired nurses through mentorship programs. Breaking down the financial savings associated with hiring and training nurses only to have them leave the job or transfer to other departments or shifts is expensive and developing or maintaining a mentorship program will show the value involved in nurse retention.
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