Assignment: Summary And Analyse
Assignment: Summary And Analyse
1. How did James (1890) characterize Spiritualists’ and, conversely, Associationists’ conceptualizations of mental life and its study … and (not-really-a-spoiler alert) in what did he consider them problematic?
2. According to Leary (1992), what, specifically, do we gain in our understanding of James’ psychological theories from knowing about James’ training and experience in the arts?
*Some tips about the readings:
• In the passage relation to his graduation day, the word “dateless” refers to a calendar date (i.e., on an unknown date).
In the passages relating to the frog and those relating to Romeo & Juliet, focus on the points he is trying to illustrate (i.e., how does it relate to what is interesting about people and what we ought to accomplish in Psychology?).
PSYCHOL~GY is the Science of Mental Life, both of ita phenomena and of their conditions. The bhenomena are such things as we call feelings, desires, cognitions, reason- ings, decisions, and the like ; and, superficially considered, their variety and complexity is such as to leave a chaotic impression on the observer. The most natural and con- sequently the earliest way of unifying the material was, first, to classify it as well as might be, and, secondly, to affiliate the diverse mental mod;* thus found, upon a simple entity, the personal Soul, of which they are taken to be so many facultative manifestations. Now, for in- stance, the Soul manifests its faculty of Memory, now of Reasoning, now of Volition, or again its Imagination or its Appet,ite. This is the orthodox ‘ spiritualistic ‘ theory of scholasticism and of common-sense. Another and a less obvious way of unifying the chaos is to seek common ele- ments in the divers mental facts rather than a common agent behind them, and to explain them constructively by the various forms of arrangement of these elements, as one explains houses by stones and bricks. The ‘ association- ist’ schools of Herbart in Germany, and of Hnme the Mills and Bain in Britain have thus constructed 8 psychdogy without a aod by taking discrete ‘ideas,’ faint or vivid, and showing how, by their cohesions, repulsions, and forms
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of succession, such things as reminiscences, perceptions, emotions, volitions, passions, theories, and all the other furnishings of an individual’s mind may be engendered. The very Self or ego of the individual comes in this way to be viewed no longer as the pre-existing source of tlie representations, but rather as their last and most com- plicated fruit.
Now, if we strive rigorously to simplify the phenomena in either of these ways, we soon become aware of inade- quacies in our method. Any particular cognition, for ex- ample, or recollection, is accounted for on the soul-theory by being referred to the spiritual faculties of Cognition or of Memory. These faculties themselves are thought of as absolute properties of the soul; that is, to take the case of memory, no reason is given why we should remember a fact as it happened, except that so to re- member it constitutes the essence of our Recollective Power. We may, as spiritualists, try to explain our mem- ory’s failures and blunders by secondary causes. But its SUCC~SS~S can invoke no factors save the existence of certain objective things to be remembered on the one hand, and of our faculty of memory on the other. When, for instance, I recall my graduation-day, and drag all its incidents and emotions up from death’s dateless night, no mechanical cause can explain this process, nor can any analysis reduce it to lower terms or make its nature seem other than an ultimate datum, which, whether we rebel or not at its mysteriousness, must simply be taken for granted if we are to psychologize at all. However the associationist may represent the present ideas as thronging and arranging themselves, still, the spiritualist insists, he has in the end to admit that something, be it brain, be it ‘ ideas,’ be it ‘ asso- ciation,’ knows past time a8 past, and fills it out with this or that event. And when the spiritualist calls memory an ‘irreducible faculty,’ he says no more than this admission of the associationist already grants.
And yet the admission is far from being a satisfactory simplification of the concrete facts. For why should this absolute god-given Faculty retain so much better the events of yesterday than those of last year, and, best of all, those
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of an hour ago? Why, again, in old age should its grasp of childhood’s events seem firmest ? Why should illness and exhaustion enfeeble it ? Why should repeating an ex- perience strengthen our recollection of it ? Why should drugs, fevers, asphyxia, and excitement resuscitate things long since forgotten 4 If we content ourselves with merely affirming that the faculty of memory is so peculiarly con- stituted by nature as to exhibit just these oddities, we seem little the better for having invoked it, for our explanation becomes as complicated as that of the crude facts with which we started. Moreover there is something grotesque and irrational in the supposition that the soul is equipped with elementary powers of such an ingeniously intricate sort. Why should our memory cling more easily to the near than the remote ? Why should it lose its grasp of proper sooner than of abstract names ? Such peculiarities seem quite fan- tastic; and might, for aught we can see a priori, be the precise opposites of what they are. Evidently, then, the faculty does not exist absolutely, but worb under coditions ; and the quest ofthe conditions becomes the psychologist’s most interesting task.
However firmly he may hold to the soul and her re- membering faculty, he must acknowledge that she never exerts the latter without a cue, and that something must al- ways precede and remind us of whatever we are to recollect, ‘‘ An adea I” says the associationist, cc an idea associated with the remembered thing ; and this explains also why things repeatedly met with are more easily recollected, for their as- sociates on the various occasions furnish so many distinct avenues of recall.” But this does not explain the effects of fever, exhaustion, hypnotism, old age, and the like. And in general, the pure associationist’s account of our mental life is almost as bewildering as that of the pure spiritualist. This multitude of ideas, existing absolutely, yet clinging together, and weaving an endless carpet of themselves, like dominoes in ceaseless change, or the bits of glass in a kaleidoscope,-whence do they get their fantastic laws of clinging, and why do they cling in just the shapes they do ?
For this the associationist must introduce the order of experieiice in the outer world. The dance of the ideas is