Assignment: Epidemiological Investigation

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Assignment: Epidemiological Investigation

Assignment: Epidemiological Investigation


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One of the important concepts from the Nuremberg Code is that of ____, which means that the subject understands the scope of the study and can make an informed decision to participate. Assignment: Epidemiological Investigation


informed   consent


voluntary   consent




primary   agent

Question 2 

The biological cause of a problem or disease is known as ____.









Question 3 

The first step in any epidemiological investigation is to ____.


understand   causation


establish   risk factors


track   trends and determine if particular diseases are increasing or decreasing in   the population


describe   the population demographically by age, race, sex, education, and other   relevant indicators

Question 4 

HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is currently a ____.


non-modifiable   risk factor




modifiable   risk factor



Question 5 

Physical, biological, social, cultural, and behaviors that influence health are known as ____.


risk   factors


health-related   states





Question 6 

The normal occurrence of a disease or condition common to persons within a localized area is known as a(n) ____.









Question 7 

A disease or condition that affects a greater than expected (normal) number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time is referred to as an ____.








epidemic   threshold

Question 8 

For chronic diseases, the time between exposure and symptoms is called the ____ period, which can range from a few months to many years.









Question 9 

Risk factors or exposures that we think might affect the outcome are known as ____.


indirect   causes


direct   causes


dependent   variables


independent   variables

Question 10 

A test given to people who have no symptoms to check for the presence of a particular disease is known as a ____.


predictive   value






screening   test

Question 11 

Identifying diseases prior to the clinical stage means that prevention efforts can begin immediately. Because the disease is already present, this is an example of ____ prevention.









Question 12 

The modern epidemiologic triangle includes groups of populations, causative factors, and ____.


alternate   explanations


risk   factors





Question 13 

The aspect of consistency means that ____.


an   increasing amount of exposure increases the risk


the   association should be compatible with existing theory and knowledge


the   association is consistent when results are repeated in studies in different   settings using different methods


the   findings agree with currently accepted understanding of pathological   processes

Question 14 

While Austin Bradford Hill is well-known for his work in developing guidelines for establishing causality for studies of non-infectious diseases, his other contributions to the field of epidemiology and ____ are remarkable.









Question 15 

The number of new cases of disease in a specified time (usually one year) divided by the population “at-risk” to develop the disease is known as ____.


prevalence   proportion


incidence   rate




case   severity

Question 16 

The number of existing cases of disease  divided by the population is known as ____.


crude   rate


person   time


incidence   rate


prevalence   proportion

Question 17 

A proportion measured over a period of time is known as a ____.


period   prevalence


prevalence   proportion


point   prevalence



Question 18 

Prevalence equals ____.


incidence   times duration of disease


incidence   divided by duration of disease


incidence   plus duration of disease


incidence   divided by duration of disease times 100

Question 19 

Consider a food borne illness that is being investigated from a restaurant during a one week period.  Anyone who ate at that restaurant, and had vomiting and diarrhea during that week, could be considered a(n) ____ even if they had not gone to see their doctor.






suspect   case



Question 20 

While many people are used to hearing proportions represented as a percentage, many population samples in epidemiology are often presented per ____.









Question 21 

The representation of a numerator as a fraction of a denominator is known as a(n) ____.






incidence   rate


specific   rate

Question 22 

A table in epidemiology that arranges numbers to allow the comparison of exposure and outcome is called a ____ table.









Question 23 

A(n) ____ is an infected individual capable of transmitting disease during and after clinical disease.


convalescent   carrier


passive   carrier


active   carrier


inactive   carrier

Question 24 

One of the most important emerging problems with the control of infectious diseases has to do with ____.


deadly   parasitic infections


antibiotic   resistant viral infections


antibiotic   resistant bacterial infections


vaccine   resistant viral infections

Question 25 

The disease carrier of most concern is known as a(n) ____, which is an infected person who never gets clinically ill, but can transmit the etiologic agent to others.


healthy   or passive carrier


pregnant   carrier


convalescent   carrier


active   carrier

Question 26 

Infectious diseases are responsible for ____% of worldwide deaths in children under 15 years old and ____% of deaths in people aged 15-59 years old.


90;   70


98;   50


50;   90


20;   80

Question 27 

If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called a ____.


multidrug   resistant drug or super-drug


multidrug   resistant bacterium or superbug


resistant   bacterium or streptococcus bacterium


killer   bacterium or deadly bacterium

Question 28 

____ is the transmission of a disease from person to person, and may be directly from one person to another, or indirectly from one person through an intermediate item to another person.


Horizontal   transmission


Vertical   transmission


Quick   transmission


Polar   transmission

Question 29 

There is ____ in the overall crude death rate in the United States from the year 1900 until 1996.


a   definite increase


a   slight decrease


hardly   any change


a   clear decline

Question 30 

____ is the transmission of a disease from mother to child during pregnancy or delivery.


Horizontal   transmission


Vertical   transmission


Lateral   transmission


Polar   transmission

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